Mogadishu (/ˌmɔːɡəˈdiːʃuː/;Somali:Muqdisho; Arabic:مقديشوMaqadīshū), known locally as Xamar (English:Hamar), is the largest and capital city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banaadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for centuries. As of 2015, it has a population of 2,120,000 residents.
Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was historically inhabited by hunter-gatherers. These were later joined by Cushitic agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, a vassal of the Ajuran Sultanate. It subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Geledi Sultanate. The city later became the capital of Italian Somaliland (1889-1936) in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean. After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing civil war, various militias fought for control of the city, later to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid-2000s. The ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government (2004-2012) and its AMISOM allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction.
Mogadishu, or Mogadiscio, was the capital of Italian Somalia in the first half of the 20th century. In Italian language, the city was called Mogadiscio italiana and the inhabitants were called Mogadiscini. Italian Mogadiscio was under Italian control from 1885 until February 1941: officially it disappeared in 1947 after the "Peace Treaty" following WWII when Italy lost all the colonies.
The first Italian to write about Mogadiscio was Marco Polo, who knew of the city during his merchant travels in Asia. But the Italians showed up in Mogadishu's history only in the late 19th century, when the commerce company "Filonardi" from Italy took control of facilities in the port of Mogadishu.
By 1882, Mogadishu was under the joint control of the Somali Geledi Sultanate (which was also holding sway over the Shebelle Valley region in the interior called Benadir) and the OmaniSultan of Zanzibar. In 1885, Ali bin Said leased the city to an Italian chartered company owned by Vincenzo Filonardi. This "Compagnia Filonardi" (1893–96) -and later the "Società Anonima Commerciale Italiana del Benadir" (1899-1905)- was finally taken by the Italian government, that obtained the control of the entire region of Benadir with the port of Mogadishu through an agreement with the British government in 1892. From 3 August 1889 to 15 May 1893 Filonardi was the first Governor of the "Somalia italiana" (he was governor again from 1896 to 1897).
Al-Shabab militants relentlessly carry out attacks in Somalia, such as Wednesday's suicide car bombing in Mogadishu that killed at least 10 people ... Ali Halane, a Somali defense lawyer based in Mogadishu, also contends that military courts should not try defendants with alleged ties to al-Shabab or any other terrorist organization.
The case has been dragging since October at the UN and AU headquarters in Mogadishu. "For us as Somalis, there were no lawyers to represent us but we are happy about the outcome and this should be a lesson for all foreign troops in our country, referring to AMISOM," one relative ...
The decision now means Somalia will use the slot initially granted to Kenya to respond to Mogadishu’s submissions made on Monday and Tuesday ... Mogadishu, however, said Kenya would be demanding “charity” if the border remains as it is ... Mogadishu too claims Kenya had given contracts for exploration to foreign firms.
But it is a problem that should have been seen earlier, according to Mogadishu-based Somali lawyer Hamza Abdikadir Sadik ... Benadir region, which hosts Mogadishu, and the status Somaliland which has sought independence from Somalia, he argued, are the two other issues that need addressing to avoid causing new instability problems.
Mohamed’s troubles began as he headed to catch his connecting flight to Columbus, Ohio, according to immigration court documents and interviews with his lawyers. Two CBP officers stopped him, and one of them asked, “Are you from Mogadishu?” Mohamed replied that he was originally from Somalia.
Africa Command says the airstrike was carried out on Wednesday near an extremist camp near Shebeeley in the central Hiran region north of the capital, Mogadishu... It often targets high-profile areas of Mogadishu with suicide bombings ... Lawyers march in ...
His lawyer Tonderai Bhatasara says Mawarire will be released on Wednesday ... His lawyer rejects the allegations against him ... Cameroon authorities arrest opposition leader in crackdown AfricaNews 2 killed, 5 wounded in blast at Mogadishu gas station Africa News Lawyers march in Zimbabwe capital alleging denial of justice Africa News.
It called for their immediate and unconditional release ...Official results said Kamto finished a distant second ... 2 killed, 5 wounded in blast at Mogadishu gas station AfricaNews Lawyers march in Zimbabwe capital alleging denial of justice Africa News UN ... .
Asylum seekers, illegal migrants and visa over-stayers of every nationality jostle with lawyers, carrying bulging briefcases of documents, who are about to fight for their right to live in this country ... Many had made last-minute appeals using immigration lawyers to avoid removal ... The woman's lawyer produced one piece of evidence to back her story.
MOGADISHU, Somalia (AP) — A Somali police officer says a suicide car bomber has detonated at an army checkpoint on the airport road in Somalia's capital, injuring one soldier ... in Mogadishu, with one person reportedly injured.
In both Mogadishu and in Puntland, lawyers with limited qualifications represent defendants ...  Human Rights Watch multiple interviews with boys detained in Garowe and Mogadishu and lawyers ...  Human Rights Watch interview with father of 16-year-old sentenced to six years, February 9,2017; interview with Mogadishu lawyer, June 9, 2017.